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The cholesterol clefts of lipid, along with a few scattered foam cells and a couple of lymphocytes, are seen at high magnification in this atheromatous plaque.

 高倍鏡下粥樣斑塊中可見膽固醇結晶空隙,周圍有一些散在的泡沫細胞和少量的淋巴細胞

Atherosclerosis may weaken the wall of the aorta such that it bulges out to form an aneurysm. An atherosclerotic aortic aneurysm typically occurs in the abdominal portion below the renal arteries, as shown here. Aortic aneurysms that get bigger than 6 or 7 cm are likely to rupture.

動脈粥樣硬化處的動脈壁變得很薄弱,容易膨出形成動脈廇。圖示:腎動脈以下的腹主動脈廇。大動脈廇的直徑大于6到7cm時很容易引起破裂。

This is a different kind of arteriosclerosis. This is hyperplastic arteriolosclerosis, which most often appears in the kidney in patients with malignant hypertension. The arteriolar wall is markedly thickened and the lumen is narrowed.

這是另一種類型的動脈硬化的表現,呈增生性細動脈硬化,常見于惡性高血壓引起的腎動脈硬化。動脈壁明顯增厚,管腔狹窄。

Sometimes the small arteries and arterioles can be damaged so severely in malignant hypertension that they demonstrate necrosis with a pink fibrin-like quality that gives this process its name--fibrinoid necrosis.

有時惡性高血壓小動脈和細動脈的病變也是非常嚴重的。呈現伴有粉紅色的纖維素樣物質形成的壞死(纖維素樣壞死)。

In diabetics, hyaline arteriolosclerosis is common. The glomerulus here stained with PAS shows nodular deposits of amorphous material (nodular glomerulosclerosis) along with a thickened arteriole at the lower right.

糖尿病患者,細動脈玻璃樣硬化(變性)是很常見的。這個PAS染色的腎小球可見右下角處的增厚的細動脈管壁有無定形的物質沉積。

This is Monckeberg's medial calcific sclerosis, which is the most insignificant form of arteriosclerosis (both atherosclerosis and arteriolosclerosis are definitely significant). Note the purplish blue calcifications in the media; note that the lumen is unaffected by this process. Thus, there are no real clinical consequences. Remember this process when calcified muscular arteries show up on a radiograph of the pelvic region in an older person.

Monckeberg氏動脈中層鈣化硬化(動脈中層鈣化)是另一種不重要的硬化形式(動脈粥樣硬化和細動脈硬化是兩種重要的形式)。在動脈中膜可見紫藍色的鈣化灶,而管腔沒有受累。看不到明顯臨床表現。在老年人的X線上骨盆區可以見到肌層鈣化的動脈。

A pulmonary thromboembolus travels from a large vein in the leg up the inferior vena cava to the main pulmonary arteries as they branch. Such thrombi embolize most often from large veins in the legs and pelvis where thrombi form with stasis.

肺血栓栓子的運行途徑:從下肢靜脈向上到達肺動脈主干及其分支,血栓栓子常來自下肢和盆腔的大靜脈。

The main pulmonary trunk and pulmonary arteries to right and left lungs are seen here opened to reveal a large "saddle" pulmonary thromboembolus. Such an embolus will kill your patient.

可見剖開的肺動脈主干和左肺動脈右肺動脈內有一個大的鞍狀的肺血栓栓子。這種栓子可導致病人死亡。

Here is another large pulmonary thromboembolus seen in cross section of this lung. The typical source for such thromboemboli is from large veins in the legs and pelvis.

切面上可見一個大的肺血栓栓子。它的主要來源是下肢和盆腔的大靜脈。

This pulmonary thromboembolus is occluding the main pulmonary artery. Persons who are immobilized for weeks are at greatest risk. The patient can experience sudden onset of shortness of breath. Death may occur within minutes.

這個肺血栓栓子使肺動脈主干閉塞。數周不動的人很有可能發生。病人可突然出現呼吸急促。數分鐘內可引起死亡。


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